Privacy-preserving matrix factorizationAuthors: V. Nikolaenko, S. Ioannidis, U. Weinsberg, M. Joye, N. Taft, and D. Boneh
Recommender systems typically require users to reveal their ratings to a recommender service which subsequently uses them to provide relevant recommendations. Revealing ratings has been shown to make users susceptible to a broad set of inference attacks, allowing the recommender to learn private user attributes, such as gender, age, etc. In this work, we show that a recommender can profile items without ever learning the ratings users provide, or even which items they have rated. We show this by designing a system that performs matrix factorization, a popular method used in a variety of modern recommendation systems, through a cryptographic technique known as garbled circuits. Our design uses oblivious sorting networks in a novel way to leverage sparsity in the data. This yields an efficient implementation, whose running time is Θ(M log2 M) in the number of ratings M. Crucially, our design is also highly parallelizable, giving a linear speedup with the number of available processors. We further fully implement our system, and demonstrate that even on commodity hardware with 16 cores, our privacy-preserving implementation can factorize a matrix with 10K ratings within a few hours.
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