Threshold Cryptosystems From Threshold Fully Homomorphic Encryption

Authors: D. Boneh, R. Gennaro, S. Goldfeder, A. Jain, S. Kim, P. Rasmussen, and A. Sahai

We develop a general approach to adding a threshold functionality to a large class of (non-threshold) cryptographic schemes. A threshold functionality enables a secret key to be split into a number of shares, so that only a threshold of parties can use the key, without reconstructing the key. We begin by constructing a threshold fully-homomorphic encryption scheme (TFHE) from the learning with errors (LWE) problem. We next introduce a new concept, called a universal thresholdizer, from which many threshold systems are possible. We show how to construct a universal thresholdizer from our TFHE. A universal thresholdizer can be used to add threshold functionality to many systems, such as CCA-secure public key encryption (PKE), signature schemes, pseudorandom functions, and others primitives. In particular, by applying this paradigm to a (non-threshold) lattice signature system, we obtain the first single-round threshold signature scheme from LWE.

In proceedings of Crypto 2018, pp. 565-596.

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